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    15篇文章贯通大学英语四级CET4词汇第13篇

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    Norman Bethune: a Canadian Hero in China

       Norman Bethune was born in Graven Hurst, Ontario, Canada in 1890. His family had a long history of human service, a fact that undoubtedly shaped his life in later years. From the outset, as a young university student, he developed a mission, or goal in life, of compassion(怜悯) and commitment to helping the less fortunate to find freedom from the chains of poverty. In earnest, he developed a selflessness(无私) that dominated his whole life, but not without personal sacrifice. He was in a troubled marriage that consequently ended in divorce. Progressive medicine and humanitarian(人道主义的) deeds became the sole purposes of his life. Understandably, his much younger wife, Frances, could not tolerate this situation.

      From 1911to 1912, Bethune worked as a lumberjack and teacher in a remote area of Ontario. He taught at “Frontier College”, a unique school that provided basic education to adult workers at the lumber camps.

      During the First World War, he became a stretcher(担架)-bearer (helping to carry the wounded from the battlefields). He, himself, was wounded by shrapnel(流弹) (fragments of exploding shells). He was confined, as a patient, to hospitals for months, receiving therapy and recuperating(复原) from his injuries.

      After the war, he completed his internship(实习医师期) at the hospital for sick children in London, England, leading to a certificate as “A Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons(外科医生)”.

      Later, in the United States, Bethune came in contact with poverty and deprivation(落后), but his skills as a doctor also attracted wealthy patients who were willing to pay for services usually denied to the poor. He began to appreciate how money was corrupting(腐蚀,使堕落) the medical system. He developed an acute concern for the unattended(未被注意的) medical needs and suffering among the poor. His mission was to relieve, as much as he could, the plight(困境) of the less fortunate. He was appalled(使震惊) at the indifference shown by governments to these conditions. It was at his time that his own health suffered a setback([疾病的]复发). He had developed tuberculosis(肺结核) of the left lung and had to undergo a successful but dangerous operation. This episode with his health had a tremendous impact on his life. It stimulated an interest in thoracic(胸的) medicine, especially the surgical(外科的) aspects in this field and for a couple of years he worked at a tuberculosis hospital in the United States.

      Following this interval in the United States, in 1929, he began to specialize in thoracic medicine at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal. He also began to write in medical journals, outlining new surgical techniques. Later, he invented developed and refined surgical instruments.

      In 1935, he journeyed to the Soviet Union to attend the International Physiological Congress. The Communist Parties of Canada and the United States had made arrangements for him to go. By this time, Bethune had become a member of the Communist Party of Canada. Returning to Canada, he was convinced, more than ever, that democratic societies needed to develop publicly financed health care for all of their citizens. Bethune had earlier set up a free medical clinic in Montreal. His conscience dictated that he should work for this goal.

      The Struggle of the Spanish Republic against Fascist(法西斯主义着) aggression took him to Spain for a medical adventure and challenge. In Madrid, he pioneered a mobile blood transfusion(输血) unit in the field. He collected blood, which was then transported to where it was needed for the wounded along the 600-mile battlefront. These efforts were reported to have reduced deaths from war by up to 75%. Thousands of people owed their lives to Dr. Bethune. His bedside manner became legendary, and it was another measure of this man.

      He returned to Canada to go on a speaking tour to raise money for humanitarian efforts among the Spanish people. During this circuit of speaking engagements, Bethune elaborated eloquently(口才流利的) on the desperate needs of these people. His ability to communicate effectively made this tour a success. His undisputed(无可置辩的) talents were attracting widespread attention. Dr. Bethune became the ultimate international volunteer to help less fortunate people whatever he could.

      In the meantime, Japan was resuming its aggression against China. The decade of the 1930’s was the era of Fascist aggression throughout the world. Bethune’s knowledge of the long history of western aggression and exploitation in China made him conclude that his services were needed there.

      In January 1938, he sailed to Mainland China. He stated that he refused to condone(宽恕) (or support) wars which greedy men make against others. He went on to say that Spain and China respectively were parts of the same battle (against Fascism). The Japanese had chased the Chinese into the northwest part of the latter’s country. Mao Tsedung met Bethune only once, but they remained acquaintances by correspondence.

      Bethune almost immediately set out for the hazardous(复杂危险的) surroundings of the mountain ranges of Yen an. In the company of the Eighth Route Army, Bethune practiced his profession as best as he could. There were no mobile units and there was a desperate need to recruit medical trainees and convey his knowledge and skills to meet the needs of the soldiers. Consequently, there was an urgent requirement for illustrated medical manuals.

      Both soldiers and peasants required a good deal of medical attention. Again, under very trying(难受的,费劲的) conditions, and with a lot of nerve, determination and courage, Bethune and his crew of Chinese assistants were eventually able to establish and coordinate over twenty medical and nursing teaching hospitals. Because of shortages of personnel and other difficulties, Bethune himself routinely operated for days without reasonable breaks. In one period, he worked continually for sixty-nine hours on a total of one hundred and fifteen patients. His ability to endure such hard conditions and retain his sanity(头脑清醒) was little short of a miracle(奇迹). It was under these conditions that his life became abruptly(突然的) doomed(注定). In October of 1939, possible suffering from extreme fatigue, he accidentally cut his left hand with the blade of his scalpel(解剖刀). Without proper medical supplies and with germs everywhere, his hand became infected and blood poisoning (a disease called septicemia) spread. He died on November 12, 1939.

      Dr. Norman Bethune’s stature ([思想的] 境界, 高度) became even greater in death. The affection of the Chinese people for him swelled Emotions ran high upon the news of his death. His capacity to move people, and his insight into humanity was never so evident as during this period. The Chinese people were extremely grateful that such a man had crossed their paths.

      During this solemn time, tributes to Bethune came from many parts of the world. He was described as an activist, a writer, a teacher, an administrator, and above all, a great doctor. Mao said of him, “… We must all learn the spirit of absolute selflessness from him.”

      After a very simple funeral, as he, had requested, Dr. Norman Bethune was buried in the Mausoleum (陵墓) of the Martyrs in Shih Chia Chuang, southeast of Beijing. The Chinese named a medical school and a hospital in his memory. Many other memorials have been erected in his memory over the years.

      One ironic(具有讽刺意味的) tragedy of all of this was that, up until 1973, Dr. Bethune had never received much recognition from his native country of Canada. Furthermore, he was not even acknowledged for his accomplishments, presumably because of his communist connection. In 1973, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, another Canadian who had spent a good deal of time in China in his earlier years, convinced his Government to purchase the Bethune house in Graven Hurst, Ontario, and dedicated(把…用于) it as “Bethune Memorial House”.

      Dr. Bethune’s impact on medicine was not singular. His career was very comprehensive, as noted above, as he attained an extraordinary list of accomplishments of highest merit. Among his many goals, was one goal that was not fulfilled until after his death? In 1938, while in china, he recommended a universal health system for Canada. Ironically, Donald Sutherland, the Canadian actor who played Bethune in the movie about the latter’s life, called “Bethune: the Making of a Hero”, had been married to the daughter of Douglas. Douglas, when he was the Socialist Premier of Saskatchewan, a western province in Canada, set up a social medicine scheme in his province. Later, in the 1960’s, as a Member of Parliament in the national government, Douglas Played a significant role in establishing a national health system. He later became known as the father of Canada’s Medicare system, as it was eventually called.

      Bethune is probably best known for his introduction of the mobile blood bank to the battlefield, and giving blood transfusions(输血) in the midst of heavy fighting. China worships him almost as a saint. Upon his death, the Chinese gave him a fond farewell. The charity of his soul still lives on among many Chinese. As Canadian teachers in China, we are often greeted by Chinese people, who make references of praise to this Great Canadian Doctor and humanitarian. Unfortunately, many Canadians know little about the incredible work for humanity undertaken by this remarkable man. This decent, in many ways, simple man was, indeed, one of the great world ambassadors who fought for the poor and less fortunate.

    诺尔曼·白求恩:一个在中国的加拿大英雄

      诺尔曼·白求恩于1890年出生在加拿大安大略省的格雷文赫斯特。他的家族有从事公共事业的悠久历史,这毫无疑问地影响了他以后的发展。从一开始,他还是一个青年大学生的时候,他就立下志向,他的丛生目标就是要有一颗怜悯之心,承担起社会责任,帮助不幸的人们摆脱贫困的桎梏,获得自由。他坚定不移地培养了一种无私的精神,这种精神贯穿他的一生,从不考虑个人的得失。他有一次不成功的婚姻,最终以离婚收场。他生活中的唯一目的是让医术精益求精和积极从事人道主义活动。在这种情况下,可想而知,比他年轻得多的妻子弗朗西斯是难以接受的。

      1911年到1912年,白求恩在安大略的一个偏远地区做一名伐木工和教师。他在“边疆学院”教书。那是一所专门为伐木营地的成年工人提供基础教育的学校。

      第一次大战期间,他成了一名担架手(帮助从战场上运送伤员)。他自己也被流弹(爆炸后弹壳的碎片)所伤。作为一个病人,他不得不在医院住了几个月,接受治疗,等待伤口康复。

      战后,他在英国伦敦的儿童医院完成了实习医师期,领到了“皇家外科医学院会员”的资格证书。

      之后,在美国,白求恩就与贫穷和落后联系在一起了。但他的医术也吸引了富有的病人,他们可以付钱来得到那些通常拒绝对穷人进行的治疗。他认识到金钱是如何腐蚀医疗系统的,并开始急切地关注被人忽视的穷人中的医疗需求和苦难。他的使命就是尽其所能地使不幸的人们摆脱困境。他对政府漠视这些情况感到震惊。也就在这时,他自己的健康开始恶化。他的左肺染上了肺结核,于是他进行了一次成功但很危险的手术。健康上出现的这一段插曲,对他的一生产生了极大的影响。这激发了他对心胸科医学,特别是该领域的外科方面的兴趣,促使他在美国的一家肺病医院工作了几年。

      在美国工作的这段时间之后,1929年,他开始成为蒙特利尔的皇家维多利亚医院胸科医学专家。他开始在医学杂志上撰写文章介绍新的外科技术。后来,他发明、研究并改进了外科仪器。

      1935年,他到苏联访问,出席国际生理学大会,是加拿大共产党和美国共产党安排他去的。那时,白求恩已经是一名加拿大共产党员。回到加拿大后,他更加深信民主国家需要建立针对所有公民的公共健康保障体系。早些时候白求恩在蒙特利尔建了一所免费诊所。他的良心支配着他为这些目标而工作。

      后来,西班牙共和国反抗法西斯侵略的斗争使他来到西班牙进行一次医学上的冒险和挑战。在马德里,他首创了一家战地流动血站。他收集血液,然后沿600英里的前线送到伤员需要的地方。据所道,这些努力将战争中的死亡率减少到75%。成千上万的人感谢白求恩大夫挽救了他们的生命。他对待病人的态度也享有盛名,它也是这个人物的另一个侧面。

      他回到加拿大继续巡回演讲,为西班牙人民的人道主义需要筹集资金。在这次巡回演讲期间,白求恩竭尽所能,详细描述了那里的人民的迫切需要。他那卓越的交际能力使得这次巡回演讲获得成功。他的勿庸置疑的才能引起了广泛注意,白求恩大夫成了杰出的国际志愿者,竭尽所能帮助不幸的人民。

      与此同时,日本开始入侵中国。19世纪 30年代是法西斯肆虐全世界的时期。白求恩知道西方对中国长期进行侵略和剥削的历史,这让他认定那里需要他的服务。

      1938年1月,他乘船来到中国大陆。他说,他无法容忍贪婪的人所发动的侵害另一部分人的战争。他继续宣讲西班牙和中国都是同一场战争(反对法西斯主义)的组成部分。日本人已经把中国人逼近到了中国的西北部。毛泽东只与白求恩见过一面,但他们通过书信保持联系。

      白求恩立即投身到延安山区复杂危险的环境中。在八路军的协助下,白求恩尽其所能地发挥他的专业特长。没有移动的设备,急需征召实习医生,将他的知识和技能传授给他们,以满足部队的需要。相应的,还急需带图解的医疗手册。

      士兵和农民们都需要医疗。为此,在极端困难的情况下,凭着胆识、决心和勇气,白求恩和他的中国助手们终于建立和配备了20多所医疗和护理教学医院。由于人员短缺和其他困难,白求恩自己整天还要照例进行手术,休息不足。有段时间,他为115个病人连续工作了69个小时。他忍受这种艰苦条件和保持头脑清醒的能力真是一个奇迹。这样的条件注定了他突如其来的命运。1939年,也许是极度疲劳的缘故,他意外地被他的解剖刀片割破了左手。没有必需的药品,到处是细菌,他手上的伤口因而受到感染,血液中毒(一种叫做败血病的疾病)扩散开来。他于1939年11月12日去世。

      诺尔曼·白求恩大夫的崇高精神在他去世后影响更加深远。中国人民更加热爱他。他去世的消息使人们非常悲痛。他激励人们的这种能力和他对人道主义的洞察力从来都不像这时如此的明显。中国人民非常感谢这位把足迹留在他们土地上的人。

      在这个庄严的时刻,对白求恩的悼念来自全世界。他被称为活动家、作家、教师、管理者,还有最主要的,是一个伟大的医生。毛泽东说“……我们必须bwin体育官方下载他毫不利已的精神”。

      在一个按他本人生前要求的非常简单的葬礼之后,诺尔曼·白求恩大夫埋葬在北京东南的石家庄的烈士陵墓。中国人以他的名字命名了一所医学院和一所医院。多年来,各地建了许多怀念他的纪念碑和纪念馆。

      与此相反,具有讽刺意味的是,直到1973年,白求恩大夫还没有在他的祖国加拿大得到应有的承认。甚至于连他的造诣都不被认可(可能是因为他是共产主义者的关系)。1975年,皮尔·特鲁多总理,早年在中国度过很长时间的另一位加拿大人,说服了他的政府,买下了安大略省格雷文赫斯特的白求恩的房子,用作“白求恩纪念馆”。

      白求恩大夫在医学上的影响是多方面的。如上所述,他的职业生活涉及面十分广泛,他取得了一系列卓越成就。在他的许多目标中,有一个直到他去世之后才完成。1938年,还在中国的时候,他建议在加拿大建立全民保健制度。巧合得很,在一部关于白求恩生平的电影“英雄白求恩”中扮演白求恩的加拿大演员,唐纳德萨瑟兰,娶了道格拉斯的女儿。道格拉斯在担任萨斯喀彻温省(加拿大西部的一个省份)社会党总理时,在该省建立了社会医疗制度。后来,在20世纪60年代,作为中央政府的一名国会议员,道格拉斯在建立全国卫生保健制度的过程中扮演了一个很重要的角色。他最后成为著名的加拿大医疗保险制度的创始人。

      或许,白求恩因为他首次把流动血站引进战场并在激烈战斗当中进行输血治疗而声名远播。中国几乎尊他为圣人。对于他的去世,中国人表示了深切地悼念。他的博爱精神仍然活在许多中国人的心中。作为在中国的加拿大教师,我们常常受到中国人的礼遇,他们经常提到并赞扬这位伟大的加拿大医生和人道主义者。不幸的是,许多加拿大人对这位非凡的人所从事过的难以置信的人道主义工作知之甚少。这位正派朴素的人,的确是一位与贫穷和不幸做斗争的伟大的国际大使。


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